訂閱

多平臺閱讀

微信訂閱

雜志

申請紙刊贈閱

訂閱每日電郵

移動應用

商業

可再生能源超過化石燃料:英國實現新能源里程碑

David Meyer 2019年10月24日

英國的可再生能源取得了突破性進展。今年第三季度,該國的可再生能源發電量超過了化石燃料。

根據氣候變化分析網站Carbon Brief的最新分析,英國第三季度的發電量中有40%來自于可再生能源,例如風能、生物能和太陽能,化石燃料占總發電量的39%,化石燃料幾乎全是天然氣,因為現在煤炭和石油在英國能源里的所占份額幾乎可以忽略不計。(剩下的21%主要來自于核能。)

Carbon Brief稱,達到該里程碑也印證了英國的電力網絡運營商英國國家電網(National Grid)的預測,即今年化石燃料的發電量將低于“零碳”能源,其中包括核能,但不包括燃燒后會排放溫室氣體的生物能。

英國可再生能源增長的主要原因是電網發電量增加,特別是海上風電場。英國的風力發電規模發展極為迅速,主要是因為風能渦輪機變得更大也更高效,相關項目在商業上的可行性提升,不像過去一樣依賴于英國政府發放的補貼。

那么,英國可再生能源所占份額與其他國家相比如何?

領先者

有些國家的電網完全(或幾乎完全)依靠可再生能源,例如冰島、挪威和哥斯達黎加。在很大程度上是因為有自然資源可以利用,主要是水力發電,還有大量地熱。

英國并未吹噓有大量地熱能源,但明年夏天將在康沃爾啟動名叫“熱巖”的鉆探項目。英國水電設施相對較少。風倒是不缺。

歐盟鄰國

利用可再生能源方面,歐盟各國中瑞典表現最好。其目標是到2040年可再生能源產量達到100%,而且在七年前便已經實現2020年的目標——50%。今年國際能源署指出,該組織的各成員國里,瑞典的主要能源供應組合中化石燃料所占比例最低。

德國的能源轉型是最廣為人知的綠色能源計劃之一,去年,德國可再生能源份額突破了40%的門檻。不過,2018年化石燃料仍占德國能源的45%左右。

德國和英國的關鍵區別在于核能發揮的作用。德國正在急切地淘汰核電,去年核電站發電量占全年總發電量僅略超過13%;而在英國,上一季度核電仍占總發電量的19%。

西班牙去年五分之二的電力來自于可再生能源,其中約一半來自于風能。上個月,葡萄牙43%的能源為可再生能源,非可再生能源僅占42%。

全球情況

與之前提到的國家相比,去年中國可再生能源在發電組合中所占的份額接近27%,相對較低。隨著能源需求不斷增加,中國仍然是全球最大的二氧化碳排放來源。

不過要記住中國規模龐大。去年,中國的可再生能源投資也占全球的近三分之一。

另一個主要的碳排放國印度也逐漸轉向可再生能源,目前印度可再生能源所占比例僅略高于19%。去年,日本可再生能源發電量占總量比例為17.4%。

至于美國,去年可再生能源占總發電量的18%,煤炭占27%,較之前一年有所下降,但另一化石燃料天然氣填上了空缺。(財富中文網)

譯者:Charlie

審校:夏林

According to new analysis by the climate change analysis site Carbon Brief, Q3 saw 40% of power come from renewables such as wind, biomass and solar, while fossil fuels—almost all gas, as coal and oil now have a negligible share of the U.K. energy scene—accounted for 39% of generation. (The remaining 21% largely came from nuclear.)

Carbon Brief said the milestone backed up the prediction by National Grid, the operator of the British power transmission network, that fossil fuels would this year account for less generation than “zero carbon” energy sources—in other words, including nuclear but not biomass, the burning of which emits greenhouse gases.

The rise in renewables’ British fortunes is largely down to more capacity coming online, particularly offshore wind farms. The scale of wind power generation in the country is in the midst of a massive boost, not least because the turbines are becoming bigger and more efficient—this means such projects are commercially viable, and do not need the subsidies handed out in the past by the U.K. government.

So how does the British renewables share compare with those of other countries?

Frontrunners

Some countries’ power grids run entirely (or almost entirely) on renewable energy, with examples including Iceland, Norway and Costa Rica. This is largely a function of the natural sources available to them—mainly hydro power, with a hefty dash of geothermal.

The U.K. doesn’t boast so many geothermal energy sources—though a drilling project to tap into “hot rocks” will begin in Cornwall next summer—and it has relatively few hydro power installations. But it has no shortage of wind.

EU neighbors

Sweden is the top performer in the European Union when it comes to use of renewable energy. It’s targeting 100% renewable energy production by 2040 and met its 2020 goal—50%—seven years ago. In fact, the International Energy Agency noted this year that Sweden had the lowest share of fossil fuels in its primary energy-supply mix of any country that’s a member of the organization.

Germany’s Energiewende (energy transition) is one of the most highly publicized green energy plans out there, and it saw renewable energy production cross the 40%-share threshold last year. However, fossil fuels still accounted for around 45% of German energy generation in 2018.

A key difference between the German and British situations is the role played by nuclear energy. In Germany, where it is being urgently phased out, nuclear had a share of just over 13% of last year’s power generation; in the U.K., nuclear still accounted for 19% of generation last quarter.

Spain took two fifths of its electricity from renewable sources last year, with about half of that coming from wind. And last month, 43% of Portugal’s energy also came from renewable sources, versus 42% from non-renewables.

Global scene

China’s share of renewables in its power-generation mix is, at almost 27% last year, relatively low compared with some of the above-mentioned countries. With ever-increasing energy demands, the country remains the world’s biggest source of carbon dioxide emissions.

However, remember China’s scale. The country was also responsible for nearly a third of the world’s renewables investment last year.

India, another major carbon-emitter, is gradually leaning more on renewable power, which currently accounts for just over 19% of generation. Japan’s renewables share of generation stood at 17.4% last year.

As for the United States, last year saw renewables take a 18% share of power generation—coal’s share, at 27%, was down on the previous year but natural gas, another fossil fuel, is what’s taking up the slack.

我來點評

  最新文章

最新文章:

500強情報中心

財富專欄

360新时时彩杀号江西时时彩杀时时彩自动投注软