訂閱

多平臺閱讀

微信訂閱

雜志

申請紙刊贈閱

訂閱每日電郵

移動應用

領導力

刑滿釋放后上哪找工作,這家銀行歡迎你

Matthew Heimer 2019年10月27日

摩根大通10%的員工曾經是罪犯。

一位行人經過摩根大通銀行位于芝加哥的一處網點。圖片來源:Daniel Acker—Bloomberg via Getty Images
?

2018年,金融巨頭摩根大通在美國雇傭了2萬多人,其中約10%,或者說2100人曾經是罪犯。同時,如果首席執行官杰米·戴蒙的計劃得以實現,就會有更多背負類似不光彩記錄的人加入他們的行列。

今天,摩根大通就促進這些刑滿釋放人員再就業推出了幾項重要措施。這家銀行正式下達“禁止查問”命令,移除了對求職者犯罪記錄的所有問題。它將拿出700多萬美元,支持為曾經入獄者提供就業和生活技能培訓的組織。同時,摩根大通將建立新的“政策中心”,后者類似于智囊機構,作用是就一些經濟問題設計并推動監管調整。它的第一項計劃就是對禁止重刑犯在金融等領域就業的規定進行改革。

在接受《財富》雜志采訪時,戴蒙把這次行動稱為摩根大通全面振興經濟計劃的一部分,而該計劃的內容包括將金融、培訓和專項技能導入現金匱乏的社區中,特別是在底特律和芝加哥。他說,這些行動讓摩根大通的領導層更多地了解到了重刑犯恢復“公民身份”所面臨的挑戰。戴蒙指出:“他們找不到工作,租不起房子。在社會上,他們處于邊緣位置。”

就在摩根大通采取上述行動之際,民主、共和兩黨也越來越共同支持犯罪-司法改革,而后者可能有助于刑滿釋放人員更好地融入經濟之中。這些改革包括減輕對一些輕微犯罪行為的懲罰,以及推出可能有助于人們更容易消除犯罪記錄的措施。紐約大學法學院布倫南司法研究中心的報告顯示,美國約有7000萬曾經被捕或認罪的勞動適齡人口。研究表明,有犯罪記錄的人通過首輪面試的可能性要低得多。2018年的一項研究稱,刑滿釋放人員的失業率為27%,是整體失業水平的數倍。

摩根大通強調,其重點是為有較輕犯罪記錄的人創造獲得入門級工作的機會,比如酒后駕車、擾亂社會治安或持有少量毒品(他們還沒有考慮過讓慣犯或詐騙犯從事敏感的金融工作)。摩根大通為合格人員打通就業渠道的初步試點將以芝加哥為主,2017年該行就在這里啟動了耗資4000萬美元的社區振興行動。

新政策機構

海瑟·希金鮑托姆曾經在奧巴馬治下的國務院任職。她的新身份是摩根大通政策中心的負責人,在這里,她將開始處理與刑滿釋放人員有關的問題。希金鮑托姆對《財富》雜志表示,她的首要任務是和聯邦存款保險公司合作,放寬為這些人再就業設置障礙的條例。其他重點工作還包括在州和地方層面全面推廣“禁止查問”措施;自動消除輕微犯罪記錄以及修改允許法院扣押輕微犯罪者駕照的規定,因為這項懲罰措施往往會讓人無法獲得或保住工作。

最后,該政策中心還會處理和經濟包容性有關的其他一系列問題。戴蒙說,他的預想是該中心將“觸及所有造成收入波動的問題,包括納稅、醫療保健以及修理自己的汽車。”希金鮑托姆補充道:“我們的標準是你是否有一技之長或獨特的經驗。我們考慮到了退休儲蓄和經濟適用房等問題,并在這些領域運用了非常多的數據。”

是什么讓刑滿釋放人員再就業成為首要任務呢?戴蒙說原因之一就是法學教授、辯護律師以及平等正義行動執行主任布萊恩·史蒂文森。2018年,史蒂文森向摩根大通高層介紹了犯罪-司法改革和種族不平等問題。戴蒙回憶說,聽眾們“絕對是啞口無言、眼含熱淚。是制度的不公正觸動了他們”。(財富中文網)

譯者:Charlie

審校:夏林

In 2018, financial giant JPMorgan Chase hired more than 20,000 people in the U.S. Roughly 10% of them—about 2,100—had a criminal history. And if CEO Jamie Dimon’s plans are realized, those employees will eventually be joined by many more co-workers with similar blotches on their records.

JPMorgan today is announcing several major steps to encourage second-chance hiring for those with criminal records. The bank is officially "banning the box"—removing all questions about criminal records from its job applications. It will steer more than $7 million toward organizations that provide job- and life-skills training to the formerly incarcerated. The bank is also launching a new “policy center,” a think tank of sorts that will design and advocate for regulatory changes around certain economic issues. Its first agenda item: reforming rules that effectively bar former felons from employment, in finance and elsewhere.

In an interview with Fortune, Dimon described the new campaign as an offshoot of the bank’s widening economic-revitalization campaign, an effort that has involved steering financing, training and expertise to cash-starved neighborhoods, particularly in Detroit and Chicago. Those campaigns, he said, had exposed more of the bank’s leaders to the challenges faced by “returning citizens” with felonies on their records. “They can’t get jobs, they can’t rent a home,” Dimon said. “Socially, they’re on the margins.”

The bank’s moves come at a time of growing bipartisan support for criminal-justice reforms that could help better integrate former offenders in the economy. Those include reductions of penalties for some minor misdemeanors, as well as measures that could help people more easily expunge their criminal records. There are about 70 million working-age adults in the U.S. with either an arrest record or a criminal conviction, according to a report by the Brennan Center for Justice. Research suggests people with such blemishes are much less likely to make it past a first job interview. And a 2018 study put the unemployment rate among formerly incarcerated people at 27%, many times higher than the wider jobless rate.

JPMorgan stresses that its focus is on building opportunities in entry level jobs for people whose past offenses were relatively minor—think DUIs, disorderly conduct, or low-level drug possession. (Hiring hardened criminals or fraudsters to work in sensitive financial positions remains well out of bonds.) The bank’s early pilot programs in building an employment pipeline for candidates that qualify will be focused in Chicago, where JPMorgan launched a $40 million neighborhood revitalization campaign in 2017.

A new policy arm

Heather Higginbottom, a former State Department official during the Obama administration, will begin tackling issues related to returning citizens in her new role as head of the JPMorgan Chase PolicyCenter. At the top of the agenda, she told Fortune, is working with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. to ease rules that make it hard for financial institutions to make second-chance hires. Other priorities, she said, include campaigning at the state and local level for broader ban-the-box rules; making criminal-record expungement automatic for low-level convictions; and changing rules that enable courts to suspend the drivers’ licenses of minor offenders—a punishment that often hamstrings someone’s ability to get or hold down a job.

The PolicyCenter will eventually take on a range of other issues related to economic inclusion. Dimon said he envisions the center “digging into everything that creates income volatility—tax payments, healthcare, having to get your car fixed.” Higginbottom added, “The criteria is: Do we have unique expertise and experience? We’re looking at things like retirement savings, affordable housing, areas where we bring a lot of data to bear.”

What made second-chance hiring the first priority? Dimon said one catalyst for the decision was Bryan Stevenson, the law professor, defense attorney, and executive director of the Equal Justice Initiative. Stevenson spoke to top JPMorgan Chase executives in 2018 about criminal-justice reform and racial inequities. People in the audience “were absolutely speechless and teary-eyed,” Dimon recalled. “The injustices of the system—that motivates people.”

我來點評

  最新文章

最新文章:

500強情報中心

財富專欄

360新时时彩杀号江西时时彩杀时时彩自动投注软